Our goal in this report is to assess the demographic and economic impacts of immigrants or the foreign-born on North Carolina regions, counties, and communities as well as The State as a whole. Toward this end, we begin with a brief historical overview of international migration to North Carolina. Drawing upon prior research and data from the 2012 American Community Survey (ACS) and the IRS Migration File, we devote specific attention to how immigrants or the foreign-born have been integrated into North Carolina communities and The State’s economy. Next, we undertake a detailed analysis of immigrant economic impacts, addressing empirically one of the most critical issues in the current policy debate about immigration reform: do immigrants contribute more than they cost? We utilize data from the ACS, Census 2010, and other public sources and an input-output model to estimate immigrant costs and contributions to the North Carolina economy. We conclude with a summary of our major findings and a detailed discussion of the implications for the future viability and competitiveness of North Carolina.