Brands seeking to achieve reduced sugar content in their products generally adjust their product line to include products (i) with lower sugar content, which decreases the brand’s relative sugar content, or introduce (ii) smaller package sizes, which lowers its sugar content per package. Such sugar reduction efforts can affect consumers’ taste, health, and/or convenience perceptions, which influence products’ sales, so the current study investigates the effects of sugar reduction efforts on both volume and sugar sales in the U.S. soda category. A uniquely compiled data set, pertaining to sugar reduction efforts involving almost 140,000 product additions by nearly 80 brands over 11 years in the United States, shows that on average, sugar content (package size) reductions perform worse (better) than similar, non-reduced products.
Soda taxes are an increasingly popular policy tool, used to discourage purchases of sugar-sweetened beverages. This study analyzes how marketing conduct and its effectiveness might change after soda tax introductions. Prior studies on the effect of soda taxes focus on price increases but neglect other, managerially relevant marketing conduct tools, such as promotional frequency, promotional discount depth, and feature promotion frequency. This study documents how the marketing conduct and its effectiveness changed with the introduction of the tax across more than 200 retail stores in five markets.
The market for structured retail products (SRPs) has grown rapidly in sales volume and complexity over the last two decades. I examine extrapolative expectation to explain this phenomenon. Products with higher past returns have experienced higher sales growth and this effect is stronger for more complex products, leading to increasing popularity of
The essence of a brand is that it delivers on its promises. However, consumers’ trust in brands (CTB) has declined around the world in recent decades. As a result, CTB has become a major concern for managers. The authors examine whether CTB is influenced by marketing-mix activities (i.e., advertising, new product introduction, distribution, price, and price promotion) implemented by brands.
We study differences in the effects of prices, non-price promotions, and brand line length on brand shares at different retail formats. Our conceptual framework rests on the presence of trip level fixed and category level variable utility components and shows how the trade-off between these components results in (i) different formats visited on different types of shopping trips; and (ii) differential marginal sensitivities of brand shares to changes in marketing mix variables across trip types.
A consumer's decision to engage in search depends on the beliefs the consumer has about an unknown product characteristic such as price. In this paper, we elicit the distribution of price beliefs and explicitly study their role in a consumer's decision to search.
Channels have traditionally been viewed as intermediaries that facilitate the transfer of products from manufacturers to consumers. Innovations in digital technologies help firms to integrate the customer experience across channels and devices. This new phenomenon is referred to as “omnichannel marketing.”
This article’s objective is to inspire and provide guidance on the development of marketing knowledge based on the theories-in-use (TIU) approach.
Marketing academics are keenly aware of the seismic shifts in today's marketing environment caused by digital (dis)intermediation. In this article, we discuss four types of digital (dis)intermediation, and how they affect branding activities of incumbents and new firms.
Consumers’ brand associations are essential to the development of effective marketing strategies. Understanding consumers’ brand associations enables firms to determine their brand’s positioning and informs new product development and marketing mix design. A rich and abundant source for consumers’ brand associations is user-generated-content (UGC).
The pricing of prescription drugs comes under persistent public scrutiny, yet limited empirical evidence details the determinants of these price levels. This study provides a price function specification for newly launched drugs, with marginal cost and pricing power components.
I investigate the exit outcomes of start-ups backed by government VCs (GVCs) and private VCs (PVCs), using a sample of 8,106 start-ups in China funded by VCs between 1991 and 2013 and exit information updated in 2018. I find that start-ups backed by GVCs are less likely to exit through domestic Initial Public Offerings (IPOs), oversea IPOs, and M&As. GVC backed start-ups are also less likely to list on the intermediate public market before companies go to IPOs.