What are the spillover effects when central financial institutions with dominant market shares simultaneously halt their liquidity creation and risk transformation roles? To shed light on this question, we build a novel, comprehensive dataset. Firms without a history of debt financing exhibit limited exposure to a systemic event. For firms that rely on external debt financing, their exposures are mainly driven by pre-existing connections to these central financial institutions. Further, having multiple bank connections or access to public debt issuance does not mitigate systemic exposures. The often-hypothesized diversification channels appear to be limited when central institutions are collectively constrained.
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