We investigate the role of mindfulness as a regulatory factor by examining whether it mitigates the relationship between justice and retaliation. Drawing on theories of self-regulation, we integrate work on justice with emerging frameworks that identify mindfulness as an important work-related regulatory variable (Glomb, Duffy, Bono, & Yang, 2011). Specifically, we identify the role of mindfulness as a buffer of the ruminative thoughts and negative emotions that link injustice to retaliation. We test mediated moderation hypotheses in 2 samples. In Sample 1, two behavioral measures of retaliation are assessed in an experiment that manipulated both injustice and mindfulness. In Sample 2, we generalize our model to the field, examining employee responses regarding experiences with workplace injustice and retaliation. Results of both studies converge to support the proposed mediated moderation model that mindfulness buffers the effect of injustice on rumination and negative emotions, thus reducing retaliation. Our findings contribute to the broader literatures on self-regulation, organizational justice, and retaliation.
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