The authors find that hedge funds during the 2008 financial crisis did not systematically benefit from opportunistic trading, which could have generated systemic risks in financial markets. Although some funds that used leverage actually performed worse than expected given ex ante risk-factor loadings, this result was most likely caused by meeting redemptions rather than by forced selling during the crisis.
We identify a new channel for the transmission of shocks across international markets. Investor flows to funds domiciled in developed markets force significant changes in these funds' emerging market portfolio allocations. These forced trades or “fire sales” affect emerging market equity prices, correlations, and betas, and are related to but distinct from effects arising purely from fund holdings or from overlapping ownership of emerging markets in fund portfolios. A simple model and calibration exercise highlight the importance to these findings of “push” effects from funds' domicile countries and “co-ownership spillover” between markets with overlapping fund ownership.
We derive cross-sectional implications of a capital gains tax rate change on the risk-return tradeoff on stock investment and show that stocks with higher accrued capital gains experience a larger risk-return tradeoff improvement after a capital gains tax rate cut. Stocks with higher dividend yields experience a larger increase (decrease) in the risk-return tradeoff when the dividend tax penalty effect dominates (is dominated by) the effect of reduced dividend yield associated with the capital gains tax cut.
Few papers in the literature on inequality measurement deal with uncertainty, particularly when the ranking of cohorts may not be fixed. We present a set of axioms implying such a class of inequality measures under uncertainty that is a one-parameter extension of the generalized Gini mean over the distribution of average allocations. The extension consists of a quadratic term accounting for inter-personal correlations. In particular, our measure can simultaneously accommodate a preference for “shared destiny”, a preference for probabilistic mixtures over unfair allocations, and a preference for fairness “for sure” over fairness in expectation.
This paper examines the internal anatomy of regional social capital and develops a role for dealmakers – individuals who provide active regional stewardship. An empirical analysis of twelve US regions finds great variation in the presence of dealmakers. The strong local presence of dealmakers is correlated with high start-up rates. The empirical results suggest that the local presence of dealmakers is more important for successful entrepreneurship than aggregate measures of regional entrepreneurial and investors network. Moreover, it is found that the presence of dealmakers is a better predictor of the status of the regional entrepreneurial economy.
The collapse of the securitization market during the 2007-2008 Financial Crisis resulted from investors’ concern with the value of securitized assets and securities issued by special purpose entities (SPEs). Research has shown that prior to the Crisis, investors valued equity of sponsor-originator banks (S-Os) as if there were an implicit guarantee extended to SPE creditors that would be fully honored. We predict that the Crisis caused investors to value S-O equity as if such guarantees would not be honored.
Financial openness is often associated with higher rates of economic growth. We show that the impact of openness on factor productivity growth is more important than the effect on capital growth. This explains why the growth effects of liberalization appear to be largely permanent, not temporary. We attribute these permanent liberalization effects to the role financial openness plays in stock market and banking sector development, and to changes in the quality of institutions.
We analyze why companies that receive private equity investments outperform their rivals. We show that rivals experience a decrease in their stock prices and their operating performance around private equity (PE) investments in their industry.
Applied financial econometrics subjects are featured in this second volume, with papers that survey important research even as they make unique empirical contributions to the literature. These subjects are familiar: portfolio choice, trading volume, the risk-return tradeoff, option pricing, bond yields, and the management, supervision, and measurement of extreme and infrequent risks.
We model the threat of such liquidation through the intermediation of an activist shareholder. Among other things, our model predicts that MDPs are more likely to be adopted by funds that appear to be less effective in providing portfolio services to their investors and that are relatively easy to liquidate or ‘attack’. We test the model on a panel of 236 CEFs and find good agreement with our model.
This study explores the process of organizational change by examining localized social learning in organizational subunits. Specifically, we examine participation in university technology transfer, a new organizational initiative, by tracking 1,780 faculty members, examining their backgrounds and work environments, and following their engagement with academic entrepreneurship.